ItemOrganisms and the Mysterious X: Interdisciplinary Innovation in Experimental Biology(Association for Interdisciplinary Studies, 1988) Bailis, Stanley; Klein, Julie Thompson; Miller, RaymondInterdisciplinary interaction was an important factor in the growth of radiation genetics in the early twentieth century. During the three decades after the discovery of X-rays in 1895, physicists had been puzzled by their paradoxical behavior: some experiments demonstrated that X-rays were waves, yet others revealed them as particles. At the same time, geneticists studying heredity were struggling to develop a method which could generate artificially induced mutations in the laboratory, thus ridding them of their reliance on infrequent natural mutations. These seemingly unrelated problems in different disciplines were linked by geneticist Hermann Joseph Muller. At a time when most physicists were still confused over the nature of X-rays, Muller harnessed their properties to create the first artificial mutation and thus spawned a new era in the application of physical techniques in experimental biology. ItemPost-Modernism and the Theory of Interdisciplinary Studies: A Reply to Nicholson(Association for Interdisciplinary Studies, 1988) Bailis, Stanley; Klein, Julie Thompson; Miller, Raymond ItemTransformations in Disciplinary Knowledge and Their Implications for Reforming the Undergraduate Curriculum(Association for Interdisciplinary Studies, 1988) Bailis, Stanley; Klein, Julie Thompson; Miller, RaymondIn the various debates over what directions reform of the undergraduate curriculum should take, too little attention has been paid to the implications of the critical theory arguments of the past three decades which have dissolved the methodological and subject-matter boundaries that putatively defined and separated the disciplines. ItemAn Argument for the Study of PlayThis paper examines the potential for interdisciplinary solutions to problems resulting from a traditional view of the "diffusion of innovations," which has been one of the more popular topics of social science research during the past twenty years. The concept of "re-invention" advanced by diffusion theorists is discussed and compared to the concept of "play" advanced by social anthropologists. The paper shows how an anthropological notion of play might be used to refine and extend diffusion theory. ItemThe Fragmentation of Knowledge and Practice: University, Private Sector and Public Sector Perspectives(Association for Interdisciplinary Studies, 1988) Bailis, Stanley; Klein, Julie Thompson; Miller, Raymond C. ItemReflections on the Nature of Interdisciplinarity: A Reply to Benson, his Critics and NicholsonInterdisciplinary refers generically to ways of confronting the world that do not comport with the currently conventional means of knowledge production--to a new lens through which to see clearly that which existing lenses do not bring into focus. Since Benson, the debate has been about whether interdisciplinarity, like the disciplines, could or should be foundational, whether it would be desirable to give up the openness it offers for the improved communication, rigor and community foundationalism might provide. Principles and openness, though, are but attributes of elements in the equation. Instead, it is on the basis of outcomes--of humanly useful results produced--that we should assess the value of something which arises from a desire to confront the world effectively. ItemOn the Need for Integrating Sex Discrimination Theory on the Basis of Causal Variables(Association for Interdisciplinary Studies, 1988)The purpose of the paper is to set the foundation for an interdisciplinary model of occupational sex discrimination (OSD). The present fragmentation of OSD theory within and among disciplines is unfortunate since it impedes the development of a complete understanding of OSD. In order to progress toward an interdisciplinary model of OSD the following steps were undertaken: (a) a taxonomy was developed for grouping OSD theories espoused by different disciplines; (b) within each group of OSD theories, key causal variables were identified; (c) by analyzing the role of key causal variables in OSD theories, key analytical dimensions were identified; and (d) then, OSD theories were linked on the basis of common bonds of causation, subject to the constraint that the integrative model encompassed all identified analytical dimensions. This process yielded the linking of statistical discrimination theory, human capital theory, prejudice theory, and role orientation theory. Whereas individual theories of OSD focus on a narrow band of causation, the proposed integration of OSD theories provides a broader and more balanced base for analyzing the problem of OSD.