Psychology Faculty Scholarship

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Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
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    A latent transition analysis of team conflict profiles
    (Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2018-04) McLarnon, Matthew J. W.; Larson, Nicole L.; O'Neill, Thomas A.
    Although team conflict is often described as being dynamic in nature, little research has investigated change in conflict over time. Taking a team-centered perspective and using latent transition analysis, this study examined the profiles of team conflict that emerge over time, and the transitions between profiles that teams experience. This study also explored the influence that different patterns of transitions have on team performance outcomes. Results underscored the presence of an ideal type of conflict (i.e., high task conflict, combined with low relationship and process conflict), but also highlighted when, during a team’s lifecycle, this ideal type of conflict can be optimal for team performance and innovation.
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    Profiles of expressed humility in leadership
    (Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology, 2017-04) McLarnon, Matthew J. W.
    From both research and practical standpoints, the interest in expressed humility has grown substantially. This is likely associated with humility being considered as a core organizational value. In the current study, we build upon the growing literature by examining expressed humility in leadership with a person-centered approach. This approach revealed that a three- profile solution was optimal, and invariant across two samples. Further, leadership self-efficacy and team performance, treated as an outcome of humility, demonstrated differences across all three profiles. Results further supported the importance of the expressed humility construct, but also help shed light on person-centered approaches to leadership.
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    Trajectories of resiliency and well-being after job loss
    (Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology, 2017-04) McLarnon, Matthew J. W.; Rothstein, Mitchell G.
    It should not be surprising that losing one’s job will have profound negative effects on well-being (Wanberg, 2012). Resiliency may be one set of resources an individual can use to restore well-being after being fired. However, little research has examined how individuals recover from the experience of losing one’s job. The current research, which adopted a self-regulatory, process-based conceptualization of resiliency (see King & Rothstein, 2010; McLarnon & Rothstein, 2013), focused on examining the dynamic trajectory of resiliency as it functioned in individuals who had been fired.
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    A person-centered approach to expressed humility in leadership
    (Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Leadership Symposium, 2017-05) McLarnon, Matthew J. W.; Weinhart, Justin M.; O'Neill, Thomas A.; Dumaisnil, Aidan
    An emerging topic within the leadership literature is that of expressed humility, as it has been considered critical for leading during challenging circumstances (Owens, Johnson, & Mitchell, 2013). Owens et al. proposed a model of expressed humility encompassing the facets of a) viewing one’s self accurately, b) appreciating the strengths of others, and c) being open to feedback from others. However, they overlooked the possibility of discrete types of leaders characterized by varying levels of the expressed humility facets. Here, we examined expressed humility through a person-centered lens, which represents a novel perspective on expressed humility, and leadership in general, as the vast majority of past research has used variable- centered approaches.
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    Influence of peer feedback on the relations between communication, coordination, and performance in global virtual teams
    (European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology, 2017-05) McLarnon, Matthew J. W.; Law, Denise; O'Neill, Thomas A.; Taras, Vasyl; Donia, Magda B. L.; Steel, Piers
    The use of virtual teams is increasing in large, multinational organizations around the globe. However, teams of this type, often referred to as global virtual teams (GVTs), are faced with numerous challenges and coordination difficulties. The current study uses a large sample of GVTs tasked with completing a long-term project to investigate the relations between communication frequency, process coordination, and project performance. Specifically, drawing upon the basic input-process-output framework we proposed an indirect relation between communication frequency and performance, as mediated by process coordination. As well, the current study, drawing on the principles of self-regulation theory, examines whether the frequency of peer feedback will operate as a moderator of the mediated relation. Using multilevel data, and multiple peer feedback conditions, support was found for the hypothesized moderated mediation model. In particular, the relations between communication frequency, process coordination, and team performance were all stronger in GVTs that gave and received peer feedback on a weekly basis than when peer feedback was only given at project completion or when peer feedback was given, but not distributed on a weekly basis. Importantly, the results of this study suggest that GVTs should use regular peer feedback to leverage the benefits of communication frequency and process coordination for team performance.
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    Introducing profiles of team conflict
    (Canadian Psychological Association, 2017-06) McLarnon, Matthew J. W.
    There are three types of team conflict accepted in modern literature: task conflict, relationship conflict, and process conflict. Task conflict suggests differences in opinions and perspectives about the task itself. Relationship conflict suggests interpersonal incompatibilities related to friction and frustration among members. Process conflict involves perceived incompatibilities regarding plans for implementing the teams ideas. Previous work examined these three conflict types independently, but we take a holistic perspective by considering each team's profile. We have recovered four profiles in several studies and these profiles are linked to multilevel outcomes such as team performance and individual team member burnout. We report on the implications of this research for moving the field of high performance teamwork forward.
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    Team conflict profiles and the mediating role of conflict management
    (Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology, 2015-04) McLarnon, Matthew J. W.; Woodley, Hayden J. R.; Hoffart, Genevieve C.; O'Neill, Thomas A.
    Conflict is common among team members, and the shared experience of conflict defines a team’s conflict state. The current study examined the mediating role of cooperative and competitive conflict management between conflict states and team outcomes. Findings suggest cooperative, rather than competitive conflict management plays a significant mediating role.
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    Cognitive bias in rats is not influenced by oxytocin
    (2016-10-27) Williams, Keith L
    The effect of oxytocin on cognitive bias was investigated in rats in a modified conditioned place preference paradigm. Fifteen male rats were trained to discriminate between two different cue combinations, one paired with palatable foods (reward training), and the other paired with unpalatable food (aversive training). Next, their reactions to two ambiguous cue combinations were evaluated and their latency to contact the goal pot recorded. Rats were injected with either oxytocin (OT) or saline with the prediction that rats administered OT would display a shorter average latency to approach on ambiguous trials. There was no significant difference between latencies to approach on ambiguous trials compared to reward trials, but the rats were significantly slower on the aversive compared to the ambiguous conditions. Oxytocin did not affect approach time; however, it was unclear, after follow-up testing, whether the OT doses tested were sufficient to produce the desired effects on cognitive bias. Future research should consider this possibility.