Innovative Designs For Low Profile Antenna Systems For Mimo 5G/V2X And Gnss Communications

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The research in this dissertation shows the analysis and development of designing antenna elements and MIMO antenna systems that can be implemented in the automotive industry and have a significant role in an autonomous driving system. The antennas presented in this research cover 5G-sub-6GHz bands which have much more extended bandwidth compared to previous LTE network, in addition to covering Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) frequency band. The design work presented in this research followed a scientific method that included simulating the antenna element using 3-D electromagnetic solver (HFSS) on 1-meter ground plane. The antenna was then fabricated using properlycut metal sheet, measured on 1-meter rolled-edge ground plane, and measured on a vehicle’s roof inside an anechoic chamber for practical measurements. The design guidelines and measurements are discussed in detail throughout this work. The first two sections of this research begin with presenting a novel wideband low-profile Planar Inverted F-Antenna (PIFA) that covers a wide frequency range (617MHz-6000MHz) that includes cellular 5G bands and V2X band while having reasonable rejection for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) frequency bands. Then, Multiple MIMO configurations based on the novel PIFA design are studied by using spatial diversity, rotational diversity, and orthogonal diversity to increase the total throughput and data rate of the system. The performance of each element in the MIMO system is analyzed and discussed to evaluate the functionality of the system. The third section of this work introduces a 2x2 MIMO antenna system for vehicular application in the sub-6GHz 5G systems that operates in the middle and high frequency bands from 1.71GHz to 5GHz. The design consists of two novel raised printed monopoles on Flame Retardant 4 (FR4) dielectric material with Partial Ground Plane (PGP) structure to improve bandwidth impedance and achieve higher isolation across the operating frequency range. The design is an excellent candidate to be implemented in a shark-fin housing due to its low-profile characteristics and good electrical performance. Eventually, in the fourth section of this work, a fully integrated low-profile antenna systems for MIMO 5G and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) for L1/L5 frequency bands is presented. The designs can be used on the vehicle’s roof inside a low profile housing due to its physical parameters and RF performance.



Electrical engineering, Electromagnetics, 5G Antennas, Automotive antennas, L1 L5 GNSS, MIMO systems, V2X communication, Vehicle communcations