Literature review of epidemiological studies examining the relationship between calcium and lead levels
Lead exposure is a notorious public health issue due to its health, social, and economic impacts. Exposure to lead increases blood lead levels resulting in the storage of lead in bone. Calcium, known for improving bone health in children and maintaining bone density in women, is competitively absorbed by the body in the presence of lead. Calcium may therefore be used to mitigate the lead body burden. Twenty-eight studies were reviewed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of calcium on reducing lead burdens. Studies were included if they quantitatively examined lead exposure (in blood, bone, or breastmilk) and calcium intake (ingested through diet or supplemental sources) or serum calcium. Eighteen studies reported a significant inverse relationship between biomarker lead levels and calcium intake or serum calcium.
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